Urban Public Transport

The transport sector accounts for approximately 30% of Indonesia’s total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions – comparatively more than global share of around 23%.

Improving connectivity and public transportation is a critical social and environmental priority for President Joko Widodo, aiming to improve access for more people in more places, reduce congestion and air pollution and drive trade and economic growth – without contributing to total GHS emissions.

Large cities are particular priorities with increasing congestion and pollution resulting in economic, health and climate impacts. Around 50% of the Government of Indonesia’s National Strategic Projects pipeline is dedicated to transportation infrastructure, with just under a quarter of these being green infrastructure.


Example of Potential GII Investments

  1. Assessment of current and future demand for public urban transport (surveys, links to city planning, etc.).
  2. Introduction or upgrade of all modes of public transport from regular buses, bus ways, BRT, mini-buses (angkot) and taxis to railway systems such as MRTs, LRTs/trams; including related infrastructure development (under-/overpasses, bus lanes, interchanges, etc).
  3. Electrification of public transport (battery electric, trolley buses) with integration of renewable energy solutions.
  4. Last-mile connectivity: Development of infrastructure and services for pedestrians, cyclists and all kind of wheelers, including bike paths and cycling highways, area-wide pedestrianization, auxiliary facilities to expand “catchment” area of public transport systems.
  5. Area and traffic management:
  6. – Assist in setting up Intelligent Transport Systems to support eco-friendly public transport modalities.
    – Development and support of Transit Oriented Development approaches, including development of last-mile services, densification, etc.

  7. Pollution reduction/Urban air quality improvement:
  8. – Improved emissions control and vehicle testing, , installation of air pollution monitors for measuring SO2, CO2, NO2, NO and particulate matter (PM-10 and PM-2.5);
    – Transparent calculation of reduction of GHG emission of different investment scenarios.

  9. Green logistics:
  10. – Support to fleet renewal and consolidation.
    – Development of freight hubs and consolidation centers.
    – Hinterland connectivity of ports and area improvement.